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Engineering Design Centre


Assistant Professor in Healthcare Systems (University of Cambridge) 

Consultant Anaesthetist (Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust)


Research groups: Health Systems Design Group
Interests: Global health, perioperative medicine, systems engineering, neurotrauma
Email: tb508@


  • PhD Engineering: A Systems Approach to Global Health. University of Cambridge, 2021
  • FRCA Fellow of the Royal College of Anaesthetists, 2014
  • MRCP Member of the Royal College of Physicians, 2010
  • MBBS Clinical Medicine. St George’s Hospital Medical School, University of London, 2007
  • MBiochem (Hons) Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. University of Oxford, 2002

Tom's principal academic interest is in developing a systems understanding of interventions to improve peri-operative care in low income settings, working closely with the NIHR Global Health Research Group on Neurotrauma.  His introduction to global health came working with VSO in Ethiopia between 2011-2012, during which time he closely worked with Lifebox Foundation, and for which he was awarded the AAGBI/MPS Patient Safety Prize. He has worked in Myanmar with the Cambridge-Yangon Trauma Intervention Project since 2013, and the Uganda Cambridge Partnership since 2020. 

Selected publications

Maas AIR, Menon DK, Manley GT...Bashford T..., Zemek R et al. Traumatic brain injury: progress and challenges in prevention, clinical care, and research. Lancet Neurology. 2022.

Smith BG, Whiffin CJ, Esene IN, Karekezi C, Bashford T, Mukhtar Khan M, et al. (2022) Neurotrauma clinicians’ perspectives on the contextual challenges associated with traumatic brain injury follow up in low-income and middle-income countries: A reflexive thematic analysis. PLoS ONE 17(9): e0274922.

Lynch M, Yoo J, Mukami D, Arian W, Bashford T, Hobden P, Luthra P, Patel M, Ralph N, Winters N, McGrath L, Simms B. Principles to guide the effective use of technology to support capacity development in global health partnerships. BMJ Glob Health. 2022 Jul;6(Suppl 6):e006783. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2021-006783.

Kohler K, Jankowski MD, Bashford T, Goyal DG, Habermann EB, Walker LE. Using network analysis to model the effects of the SARS Cov2 pandemic on acute patient care within a healthcare system. Sci Rep. 2022 Jun 16;12(1):10050. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-14261-3.

Kohler K, Nwe Myint PP, Wynn S…Bashford T et al. Systems approach to improving traumatic brain injury care in Myanmar: a mixed-methods study from lived experience to discrete event simulation. BMJ Open 2022;12:e059935. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-059935

Clark D, Joannides A, Adeleye AO, Bajamal AH, Bashford T…Hutchinson PJ et al on behalf of the Global Neurotrauma Outcomes Study (GNOS) collaborative. Casemix, management, and mortality of patients receiving emergency neurosurgery for traumatic brain injury in the Global Neurotrauma Outcomes Study: a prospective observational cohort study. Lancet Neurology. 2022 doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00037-0

Stubbs DJ, Davies B, Hutchinson P, Menon DK; Improving Care in Elderly Neurosurgery Initiative (ICENI). Challenges and opportunities in the care of chronic subdural haematoma: perspectives from a multi-disciplinary working group on the need for change. Br J Neurosurg. 2022 Jan 28:1-9. doi:10.1080/02688697.2021.2024508.

Whiffin CJ, Smith BG, S. Selveindran M, Bashford T, Esene IN, Mee H, Barki MT, Baticulon RE, Khu KJ, Hutchinson PJ, Kolias AG. Qualitative research methods in neurosurgery: an unexplored avenue. World Neurosurgery. 2021 doi:10.1016/j.wneu.2021.12.040.

Boddy N, Barclay S, Bashford T, Clarkson PJ. How can communication to GPs at hospital discharge be improved? A systems approach. BJGP Open. 2021 Oct 7:BJGPO.2021.0148. doi: 10.3399/BJGPO.2021.0148. Epub ahead of print.

Whiffin CJ, Smith BG, Esene IN, Karekezi C, Bashford T … Figaji A et al Neurosurgeons’ experiences of conducting and disseminating clinical research in low-income and middle-income countries: a reflexive thematic analysis BMJ Open 2021;11:e051806. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-051806

Schell CO, Khalid K, Wharton-Smith A The EECC Collaborators, et al Essential Emergency and Critical Care: a consensus among global clinical experts BMJ Global Health 2021;6:e006585.

Mazzola F, Howell V, Bashford T. Launching an online resource for Good Practice in Volunteering for Anaesthetists. Abstract Book, 17th World Congress of Anaesthesiologists, September 1–5, 2021. Anesthesia & Analgesia 2021;13:3S – p 1-1973

Selveindran SM, Hutchinson P, Brayne C, …Bashford T et al. 3C.003 Global prevention of neurotrauma-road traffic collisions (GPONT-RTC). Injury Prevention 2021;27:A24.

Smith B, Whiffin C, Esene I, Karekezi C Bashford T…Rubiano A et al. Neurotrauma clinicians’ perspectives on the contextual challenges associated with long-term follow-up following Traumatic Brain Injury in Low- and Middle-income countries: a qualitative study protocol. BMJ Open. 2021;11:e041442. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041442

Bukauskas A, Koronaki A, Lee TU, Ott D, Al Asali MW, Jalia A, Bashford T, Gatóo A, Newman J, Gattas JM, Shah DU, Ramage M. Curved-crease origami face shields for infection control. PLoS One. 2021 Feb 8;16(2):e0245737. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0245737.

Komashie A, Ward J, Bashford T, Dickerson T, Kaya GK, Liu Y, Kuhn I, Gunay A, Kohler K, Boddy N, O’Kelly E, Masters J, Dean J, Meads C, Clarkson PJ. A systems approach to health service design, delivery and improvement: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2021 11:e037667. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037667.

Bashford T, Gore-Booth J, James J, Pickering S, Paris, B, Ross O, Shamambo N. Chapter 1: Context (Humanitarian Assistance and International Development). In Craven R, Edgecombe H, Gupta B (Eds). Oxford Specialist Handbook of Global Anaesthesia. Oxford. 2020. ISBN 978-0-19-880982-1.

Bashford T, Morriss W, Roques C, Shamambo N, Wilkes M.  Chapter 5: Perioperative Care (Consent in global anaesthesia). In Craven R, Edgecombe H, Gupta B (Eds). Oxford Specialist Handbook of Global Anaesthesia. Oxford. 2020. ISBN 978-0-19-880982-1.

Whiffin CJ, Smith BG, Esene IN, Karekezi C, Bashford T…Kolias A et al. Neurosurgeons’ experiences of conducting and disseminating clinical research in low- and middle- income countries: a qualitative study protocol. BMJ Open 2020;10:e038939. 

Stubbs DJ, Davies BM, Bashford T, et al Identification of factors associated with morbidity and postoperative length of stay in surgically managed chronic subdural haematoma using electronic health records: a retrospective cohort study BMJ Open 2020;10:e037385. 

Clark D, Joannides A, Abdallah OI, Adeleye AO, Bajamal AH, Bashford T…Hutchinson PJ et al on behalf of the Global Neurotrauma Outcomes Study (GNOS) collaborative, Management and outcomes following emergency surgery for traumatic brain injury – a multi-centre, international, prospective cohort study (the Global Neurotrauma Outcomes Study), International Journal of Surgery Protocols (2020), doi: 

Wenlock RD, Bath MF, Bashford T, Kohler K, Hutchinson PJ (2020) The global variation of medical student engagement in teaching: Implications for medical electives. PLoS ONE 15(2): e0229338. 

Bath M, Bashford T, Fitzgerald JE. What is ‘Global Surgery’? Defining the Multidisciplinary Interface between Surgery, Anaesthesia, and Public Health. BMJ Global Health. 2019:e001808

Bashford T, Joannides A, Phuyal K, Bhatta S, Mytton J, Harrison R, Hutchinson P. Nuancing the need for speed: temporal health system strengthening in low-income countries. BMJ Global Health. 2019. 4:e001816. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001816 

Howell V, Bashford T. Tropical diseases and anaesthesia. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine. 2019. doi:10.1016/j.mpaic.2019.06.008 

Bashford T, Vercueil A. Anaesthetic research in low- and middle-income countries. Anaesthesia. 2018. doi:10.1111/anae.14518 

Moonesinghe SR, Bashford T, Wagstaff D. Implementing risk calculators – time for a Trojan horse?. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2018. 121(6): 1192e1195 doi:10.1016/j.bja.2018.09.025

Clarkson J, Dean J, Ward J, Komashie A, Bashford T. A systems approach to healthcare: from thinking to practice. Future Healthcare Journal. 2018. 5(3). p151-155 doi: 10.7861/futurehosp.5-3-151.

Bashford T, Nwe Myint PP, Win S, Thu M, Naing MM, Burnstein RM, Hlaing TT, Brealey E, Hutchinson PJA, Clarkson PJ.  A systems approach to trauma care in Myanmar: from health partnership to academic collaboration. Future Healthcare Journal. 2018.  5(3). p171-175. doi: 10.7861/futurehosp.5-3-171.

Abou El Ela Bourquin B, Gnanakumar S, Bath MF, Bashford T, Menon DK, Hutchinson PJA. The international health elective: a stepping stone for tomorrow's global surgeons and anaesthetists. Perspect Med Educ. 2018.

Bashford T, Clarkson PJ, Menon DK, Hutchinson PJA. Unpicking the Gordian knot: a systems approach to traumatic brain injury care in low and middle income countries. BMJ Global Health 2018;3:e000768.

Gibbs A, Bashford T, Wilson IA. Pulse oximetry in a high income setting: how big is the gap? Anaesthesia. 2017. 72(12): 1565–1567.

Bashford T, Howell V. Anaesthesia a Tropical Disease 2. BJA Education. 2017. Mar 18(30), p75-81

Bashford T, Howell V. Anaesthesia a Tropical Disease 1. BJA Education. 2017. Feb 18(2) , p35 – 40

Bashford T, Reshamwalla S, McAuley J, Allen NH, McNatt Z, Gebremedhen Y.  Implementation of the WHO Safe Surgery Checklist in an Ethiopian Referral Hospital. Patient Safety in Surgery. 2014 Mar 8(16).

Walker IA, Bashford T, Fitzgerald E, Wilson IH.  Improving Anesthesia Safety in Low-Income Regions of the World. Current Anesthesiology Reports. 2014.

Bashford T. Anaesthesia in Ethiopia: providers’ perspectives on the current state of the service. Tropical Doctor. 2014 Jan 4(1) p6-13.

Bashford T.  Quality Improvement in Low Resource Settings: An Ethiopian Experience. British Journal of Hospital Medicine. 2013 May 79(5) p.286-288.

Public engagements

2021 Healthcare systems: the future of global health Essay for the Coalition for Global Prosperity as part of the collection: The Future of Aid, Development in the 2020s. Published at Westminster Abbey, September 2021.

2021 Five Questions with…Dr Tom Bashford
Interview with THET exploring why expanding access to surgical care is so important, how we can ensure progress made towards health equity is not lost due to Covid-19, and what more needs to be done in this International Year of Health and Care Workers to ensure their voices remain heard.(

2021 Trauma care in Myanmar: the bigger picture
Interviewed for the ‘Anaesthesia Compass’ podcast exploring different aspects of global anaesthesia (

2019 Partnership, collaboration, and working toward shared goals
Blog for THET exploring issues around collaboration within international health partnerships.

2016 ‘The Checklist Effect’
Interviewed for Lifebox film detailing international efforts to implement the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist

2012 ‘Into Thin Air’
BMJ Blog in support of Lifebox BMJ Christmas Appeal 2012

2012 ‘Road to Safer Surgery’, Yekatit 12 Hospital, Addis Ababa
Produced in association with the Clinton Health Access Initiative, Ethiopia

2012 ‘How to Implement the Safe Surgery Checklist’, Yekatit 12 Hospital, Addis Ababa
Produced in association with the Clinton Health Access Initiative, Ethiopia

2012 Voluntary Service Overseas: Anaesthesia in Ethiopia
A video detailing some of the work of this placement can be found at:

Takes PhD students
Available for consultancy